People's Liberation Party-Front of Turkey
People's Revolutionary Vanguardes
Analysis of the Imperialism
THE ECONOMIC CRISES
IN THE PRE-IMPERIALISM TIME
In the before-imperialistic time (capitalism of the free competition), where capitalism the productive forces develops and in the society a prosperity in the civil sense creates, is intensified the basic contradiction of capitalism (between the social characteristic of production and the private property at means of production) in economic crisis periods. These economic crises occur according to Marx every 8-10 years cyclically.
"of the time on as the mechanical industry it had however only struck so deep roots that she exerted a predominant influence on whole national production; as by it the foreign trade the domestic trade rank to run began; when the world market seized gradually expanded areas in the new world, in Asia and in Australia; when the industriellen nations, which stepped on the arena, had become numerous finally enough - only from this time on dated those always again-producing cycles, their successive phases years cover themselves and those always run out on a general crisis, the end of a cycle and starting point of a new are. Up to now the periodic duration of such cycles is ten or eleven years, but there is no reason to regard this number as constant. In the opposite, from the laws of capitalistic production, how we developed her evenly, one must conclude that she is variable and that the period of the cycles will shorten gradually." 
The revolutions of 1848 were the consequence of the world-wide economic crisis of 1847-48. At that time it thought Marx and Engels that the last hour of capitalism had not come and capitalism from this crisis any more would not recover. They believed that the proletariat would transfer power to Europe after heavy fights.
After 1850 explained Marx and Engels the defeat of 1848 with the nonexistence of the objective conditions for the prolotarische revolution:
" with these general Prosperitaet, where the productive forces of the civil society do not develop so sumptuously, as this is at all possible within civil conditions, can from a real revolution a speech be. Such a revolution is possible only in the periods, where these two factors, the modern productive forces and the civil production forms, together into contradiction come."
" history gave us and all, that thought similarly, wrongly. It made clear that the status of the economic development on the continent was at that time still by far not ripe for the removal of capitalistic production; it has this proven by the economic revolution, which since 1848 the whole continent seized and which large industry in France, Austria, Hungary, Poland and recently Russia only really in-patriated, however almost made from Germany an industrialized country of first rank - all on more capitalistic, in the year 1848 of thus still very expansionable basis."
The proletariat could transfer 3 by an attack power in the economic crisis periods, but it could not remain at power, because capitalism developed the productive forces (in the context of civil conditions) after the crisis again. In the before-imperialistic time the objective conditions of the proletarian revolution were missing.
"... before the contradiction between the social characteristic of production and the private property at means of production becomes antagonistic, leads the cyclic economic crises of capitalism to no revolution."
THE CRISES IN THE IMPERIALISTIC PHASE
In the imperialistic phase the basic contradiction of capitalism is intensified. Since the development of the productive forces is permanently prevented, is the basic contradiction permaneft fuehlbar.Wir calls that the general and permanent crisis of the Karpitalismus. It is a general crisis, because it relatively independently of periodic economic crises as a whole system (economically, politically, ideologically, culturally, militarily etc..) capitalism slowly destroys. That is a permanent status. The determining characteristic of this status is that capitalism constantly disintegrates that its economic, political and ideological substance is internally weakened.
In the imperialistic phase is basicagainst message of capitalism not only in times of the cyclic economic crises noticeable, but permanent in all times. If the general and permanent crisis of capitalism is intensified by economic, political and military reasons, economic, political develop among other things. Crises.
The imperialistic phase is the general and permanent crisis phase of capitalism. In addition, this phase is divided because of the changing form (not however the character) of the imperialism into different crisis phases. The analysis of the different imperialistic phases makes the modifications in the mechanism of the imperialism clear. These modifications must be considered necessarily with the combat forms of the proletariats. I.e. they determine to a large extent the organizing and combat methods the proletarian revolutionary.
THE I. CRISIS PHASE OF THE IMPERIALISM
The I. crisis phase begins approximately in 1903, where the monopolies and the financial capital control the economy and the distribution of the world under the imperealistischen countries is carried out. In this phase England possesses economically the world domination the law of the heterogeneity of the development has its full validity. The imperialists are split into different stocks. The objective conditions of the proletarian revolution are available with beginning of the imperialistic phase, i.e. the general and permanent crisis. When this crisis deepens 1914 and the world-wide economic crisis develops, the proletarian movement in Europe is passivated to a large extent. The Opportunismus, represented by the leaders of the workers' movement, adheres to the theses of Marx and Engels, which were valid for the before-imperialistic phase. Thus the subjective conditions for the revolutions were missing until 1917. Only 1917 the objective and subjective conditions meet and the Russian revolution take place.
The I. crisis phase of the imperialism ends during the I.Weltweiten of distribution war, in 1917 with the Russian revolution.
THE II. CRISIS PHASE OF THE IMPERIALISM
The most important characteristics of the IITH crisis phase of the imperialism are the following:
a. Emergence of a permanent alternative against the imperialism by the Russian revolution of 1917,
b. Intensification of the economic crises,
c. Intervention of the state into the capitalistic mechanism. Conversion of monopoly capitalism (new Deal in the USA, fascism in Italy and Germany),
d. Modification of the force equilibrium between the imperialistic countries: The USA begin to overhaul England.
The II.Krisenphase of the imperialism stops with the end of the II.Weltweiten of distribution war.
THE III. CRISIS PHASE OF THE IMPERIALISM
In this phase capitalism must accept many defeats.
The structure of the socialist system and the wars of liberation last their victory to 1948 achieve the revolutions in North Korea and 1949 in China. 1954 the Frenchmen must after their defeat in serve Bien Fu North Vietnam to vacate. 1958 are the revolution in Cuba in the advance. In Africa some countries achieved their independence.
In this phase the imperialistic countries organize themselves officially.
In 1944 they decide the establishment of the IWF and the World Bank in Bretton Woods. These international financial establishment ions are not alliances of some imperialistic countries against other imperialistic countries, but they contain the effort of all imperialistic countries to control the economic and political development of the world together. The reason of this official are continuous organizing are the presence of the socialist system and the development of the national liberations movement.
In the years 1945-58 the USA seize the absolute hegemony in the imperialistic block.
The reasons for this are:
A. Attenuation of the other imperialistic countries by the war,
b. Consequently only the USA can take over the Gendarmerieaufgabe of the imperialistic block,
c. Considering the " cold war " between the imperialistic and the socialist block and the potential of the communist parties in Western Europe Japan and the Western European countries must be structured within a short time again, if the USA in the sea of socialism not when an island want to remain.
In the integration of the imperialistic countries the absolute hegemony appears in practice in such a way that the USA have the largest voice proportion in the international financial establishments that the US dollar is the reserve unit of the world currency again-decided now and the US military potential in capitalistic countries dominates.
After 1958 the functions of the international financial establishments develop. Their credits and loans assigned under certain criteria on underdevelops countries held. Auchder exportation of capital of the USA to Europe has the characteristic in this phase, to penetrate in whose Oekonomien and control it.
In the III. Two important factors occur to crisis phase of the imperialism, which change the situation of the imperialism in the form (however not in the substance):
- the competition between the imperialist (contradictions) cannot lead no more to a new world-wide imperialistic war,
- The form of the imperialistic Okkupation changed.
Mahir Çayan indicates the following factors as reasons for the impossibility of the military solution of the antagonistic contradictions between the imperialists:
"Prevent the degree of the nuclear weapons in the world and the existence of the large sozialistichen block as main factor that to on extreme intensified antagonistic contradictions between the imperialists of the economic skip to the military area. While the contradictions are intensified and deepened, one goes the way of the integration."
We maintain that still two factors are added, which make a military solution of the contradictions impossible i.e. the emergence of multinational companies and not classical functioning of the law of the unequal and precipitous development of capitalism.
In the phase after 1958 the concentration and centralization of the capital achieve such extents that it blows up its national boundaries. Multinational companies develop. The internationalization of the capital is to be observed not only in the III.Krisenphase. Also in the Ith and IITH phase goods and capital were exported. The differentiating feature of the multis is situated in the fact that production assumed a multinational character, i.e. in different countries branches of production are settled (division of labor on higher level).
One can understand the reason, why the contradictions lead under the imperialist to no new world-wide distribution war, only if one examines the law of the unequal development:
The law of the unequal development designates that the countries, which are relatively backward in capitalistic production catch up the progressing countries by a precipitous development (e.g. Germany before the I.Verteilungskrieg England caught up). Thus-change the force equilibrium and a redistribution of the colonies, i.e. a new distribution war comes on the agenda.
Stalin says to it the following:
"About which does the law of the heterogeneity of the development go out? It proceeds from the following:
1. Old, before-monopolyistic capitalism developed to monopolyistic capitalism, into the imperialism, to these changed;
2. the allocation of the world in spheres of influence of the imperialistic groups and powers is already terminated;
3. the development of the world economy carries out itself under the conditions of a desperate, on death and life of led fight of the imperialistic groups for markets, for raw materials, around the extension of the old spheres of influence;
4. this development takes place, but precipitously, so not evenly that hurried ahead powers are displaced by the markets and new powers into the foreground to move;
5. to reduce this development way in price due to it that imperialistic groups have the possibility of developing in fastest speed their technique their goods and actually tear markets, which goes at expense of the other imperialistic groups;
6. periodic re-allocations of the world already divided thus as an absolute necessity "
Then explains Stalin that these imperialistic wars breaking through enables to the imperealistischen front in individual countries.
The capitalistic production phase passes through different stages (simple manufaktur, mixed manufaktur, factory, assembly-line, computer application, cybernetics among other things). Also these stages are divided into itself into different stages. In the phase of the capitalistic development a capitalistic country relatively remained can catch up a advanced country by a precipitous development, by skipping some these intermediate stages. Thus it develops its productive forces more than the caught up country. Better said this country brakes its productive forces fewer than the country, which is to be caught up. We assume with the fact the productive forces in the imperialistic phase in all capitalistic countries are permanently braked.
We state that this law of the unequal and precipitous development does not function today in the classical way as in I. and II. Crisis phase of the imperialism. Further we state that the countries of the EEC and Japan did not catch up the USA by an unequal and precipitous development, but the USA dropped back economically. Political theses, which maintain the opposite, would have to explain only once, which intermediate stages of production should have skipped these countries and catch up the USA. By the entwinement and integration, by which one would have to say mutual in each case investments that even a precipitous development of production pulls one of these countries the others in the relation of its capitals in this country with itself.
The reason, why the USA dropped back in relation to the countries of the EEC and Japan, is that they took over the function gendarmes of the imperialistic block against the socialist Iaender and the national wars of liberation.
The establishment of bases around the socialist countries and the fight against national liberations movement erschuetert approximately the US economics quite sensitively. Without equivalent of printed US Dollar for organizing the world-wide countering revolution the US inflation accelerated and the USA forced to cancel their dollars. Particularly the Viet Nam war, into which the USA interfered after 1965, was the reason that itself the balance of payments defict of the USA by the military outputs abroad increased and the dollar its primacy weltwiet as reserve unit lost. In summary one can say that the absolute Hegomonie of the USA was converted in the imperialistic block into a relative supremacy.
Despite the acute reduction of its internal and outside markets the imperialism cannot solve this problem by a world-wide distribution war. This circumstance forced the imperialism, particularly the Yankee imperialism after the second world-wide distribution war to two methods: To the militarization of the economics in the inland and to the method of the new colonizing abroad.
THE NEW COLONIZING THE METHODS OF THE NEW COLONIZING
The characterizing features of the new colonizing are: The feudale structure in the countries already colonized is converted to a large extent into a native Monopolbourgeoisie; because itself this Monopolbourgeoisie from the outset under the line of the imperialism developed and thus capitalistic-imperialistic production conditions in the country gain a foothold, that means that the imperialism became a native phenomenon and the form of the imperialistic Okkupation changed. We speak of the covered Okkupation.
The imperialism exploits the colonized or halfcolonized countries generally by three methods: Indebtedness, trade and investments. It applies these methods in such a way that it can maximize its profits. These methods, which are used since the birth of the imperialism, are products of the obligation of the profit maximization, so also a law of the imperialistic circulation.
The modification of the relative weight between these exploitation methods in the different crisis phases determines the character of the specific exploitation forms. While in the Ith and IITH crisis phase the exploitation weighed by the trade more heavily, the exploitation is by investments in the III. Crisis phase considerably. The indebtedness method in the Ith and IITH crisis phase had actually the target to get high interest while the indebtedness in the III. Crisis phase the detachment of the system to prevent is.
We had said that the permanent and general crisis of capitalism particularly deepens in the IIITH crisis phase after the establishment of the world-wide socialist system and after the acceleration of the national wars of liberation strongly. The obligation to appear against the socialist system and the national wars of liberation as a unit and the status of the world-wide capital accumulation in the imperialistic countries, are the causes of the multinational companies and the practice of the new colonizing methods. Thus begin the imperialists in this phase to organize itself for the first time officially and for all times.
"The international financial establishments are political organizations, which were created by the imperialistic countries, in order to direct the world-wide economic and political development and particularly to control the colonized countries. They rely on strong economic co-operation of the imperialistic Laender.(...) The World Bank anxious Aufbau-und of development credits for the capitalistic countries, which were destroyed in the war, as well as for underdevelops countries held, while the IWF should guarantee functioning and a dollar-dependent money system which can be created again. The IWF had the function to prevent the threat of the imperialistic system with defizitaerem course change. No country was allowed to change the rate of exchange of its cash, without the IWF gave its permission for it."
1944 in Bretton Woods the establishment of the international financial establishments one decided. After the American congress acknowledged 1945 this resolution, 1946 the far bank were created. It gave for the first time in the years 1947 and 1948 on the initiative of the USA loans under the slogan " reconstruction to European countries after the war ".
"After the II. World War the Western European countries as well as Japan had to be rebuilt in shortest time. The USA had to carry out the reconstruction of the capitalistic countries in shortest time, if they did not want to remain in the sea of socialism like an island."
After 1950 the loans and credits generally to underdevelops countries held addressed.
Before each financing the project which can be financed is carefully planned, controlled by the responsible persons of the World Bank and accepted only then. If the credits private companies are given, the governments of the respective countries must take over the credit warranties. The credit interests are higher than the interest of the private banks. Because the World Bank is not by any means determined to compete with the private banks and damage it. She even often takes part in the financings by the private banks, solves themselves the bureaucratic problems with the financing and procures guaranteed interest for the private banks.
The credits of the World Bank concentrate in the investments for the infrastructure and agriculture underdevelop countries held. Because the first steps with the development of capitalism in these countries (a development dependent on the imperialism) are the modernization of the agriculture and the structure of the infrastructural technical systems. Thus the opening of the country is prepared for the free-market economy, and the necessary foundations for the future industrial investments secured.
Here we would like to stress the functions of the infrastrukterellen systems during the process of the capitalistic development. The fundamental characteristic, which determines production in the capitalistic economics, is certainly the characteristic that production is operated for the purpose of the conversion, i.e. fdr the market, in the long run for the profit.
Capitalism is a production way, in which goods production takes its highest form, in which all relations within the production activities as goods relations is defined. In other words depends in the capitalistic production way of the whole of the production activities on the conditions of goods production. Therefore the development of capitalism depends directly on the necessary conditions for goods production.
The development of the feed and intelligence as well as the power production and power supply forms the most fundamental condition of the development of goods production in this sense.
As in capitalistic production the wise circulation process of the capital with G-w-g admits is expressed. This circulation process ends in each case by the fact that the goods, which are produced in the production process, on the market are sold and again into cash converted.
"The more production been based on the exchange value, therefore on the exchange, the more importantly become for them the physical conditions of the exchange - of communications - and means of transport - thus mass becomes the necessity for it in completely and rem - the destruction of the space by the time."
On the other page it is for the Kapiatlisten of large importance that the feed time is shortened. Because so that the circulation rate of the capital becomes large, the Zirkuiationszeit must be short. A low circulation rate of the capital means that it remains to for a long time in the circulation process and its application in the production process is prevented. Therefore the possibilities of the feed and intelligence must enwickelt, which feed of the goods of the producer to the sales market are accelerated.
As one sees, the necessities get to transport the goods too furthermore been situated markets and concomitantly the transport costs within the circulation costs an ever greater importance. From this it results that the transportation and be relatively lowered by the intensified application of means of transport the transport costs must be developed within the circulation costs.
"The capitalistic production way reduces the transport costs for the individual commodity by the development the feed - and means of communication as by the concentration those size of Stufenleiter-des of feed. It increases the part of the social work, alive and more vergegenstaendlichter, which in the transport of goods one spends, first by conversion of the large majority of all products into goods, and then by the replacement locally by distant markets. Circulating, i.e. actual rotating of the goods in the space solve themselves on into the feed of the commodity. Transports form on the one hand an independent branch of production, and therefore a special Anlagespaere of the productive capital. On the other hand it differs by the fact that it appears as continuation of a production process within the circulation process and for the circulation process."
The capitalistic development depends in the large yardstick also on the power supply for the industry. In the same measure the capitalistic development depends also on the prices of the energy.
Together with the development the proportion of the power supply in the relation grew the industrialization within the process of the capitalistic development like the yardstick to be production-grown and means of production developed. The operation of the own energy sources was not sufficient to supply the increasing capitalistic industries sufficiently. Because the exhaustion of the own sources of each operation caused to high costs; the capitalist had to lower the other costs during the circulation process, in order to remain competitive on the market, which prevented in the long run the intensified accumulation of the capital. Additionally the own energy sources were not enough quantitatively any longer out for increasing production.
The needs of the capitalistic development had to bring inevitably a technological development to the power production and supply with itself. New capitalistic operations, which specialized at the beginning of only on this area, developed however with other productions verflechteten themselves later, the more the capitals centralized themselves and accumulated.
With the increasing yardstick of the power production their production costs. LN the colonized countries is it however like that that the capital accumulation of the Bourgeoisie is not sufficient to carry out power production systems in the required yardstick. Therefore the fact becomes in these countries that the power production and supply are taken over by the national operations, when a necessary condition accepts industrial development.
 K.Marx: Capital, I.Band, MEW 23, S.663
 K.Marx/F.Engels: MEW Bd.7 S.440
 F.Engels: Introduction (to Karl Marx "Class Warfares in France 1848 to 1850 " (1895)) in MEW Bd.22, S.515
 M.Çayan: Kesintisiz Devrim III III, S.
 Mahir Çayan: Kesintisiz Devrim III III
 J.W.Stalin: Factories Bd.8, S.280
 The Urgent Questions of The Revolution in Turkey, Turkish, S.14 (one of the hauptwerke of the organization THKP-C/HDÖ)
 ebenda, S-15
 K.Marx: Sketches of the criticism of the political economics, S.423
 K.Marx: Capital, II.Band, MEW 24, S.153